BioAstin and sport

 

BIOASTIN ® Natural Astaxanthin ® in sport number 1 –
new opportunities to reduce fatigue and muscle damage after a
intensive trainings at athletes, as well as increase endurance
and adaptation in athletes.

Numerous studies have shown that free radicals can be considered as one of the causes of muscle injury, pain, reduced stamina and strength after intense training. [9] Free radicals damage the cells of the muscles during strenuous exercise, which will also lead to inflammation and acute pain in the muscles and tendons. [20]

Reactive forms of oxygen and nitrogen, formed during heavy physical activity plays an important role in skeletal muscle damage, inflammation, lipid peroxidation, which also contributes to the loss of calcium homeostasis in muscle cells after physical stress [25].

Enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems play a major role in protecting tissues from oxidation during exercise. Depletion of such systems as a result of intense exercise leads to a condition in which the number of free radicals is much higher than the protective systems and tissues are vulnerable to destruction. [30]

Interesting fact:

 

 

Have you ever seen salmon spawning?

Fish swimming against the current up the rugged river for several days. Here, truly, load unprecedented intensity!

If we were talking about a human person, it was comparable to a continuous weekly swim meet a wave height of more than 900 m

for a distance of 150 km!

How is it possible to make a heroic salmon swimming?

Scientists tend to assume that it is a high content of astaxanthin in the muscle allows salmon, spawning, keep the muscle fibers in working order throughout the grand race.

It is now also confirmed that supplementation of the antioxidants by athletes can neutralize the damaging effects of free radicals produced as a result of intense exercise [11], and thus not only to protect the muscles from their damaging effect, but also greatly reduce the time of recovery of athletes after intensive workloads, improve their endurance and results during the training. [25], [29]

Figure 1. Astaxanthin. Chemical formula.

 

In this connection, our attention is especially attracted antioxidant astaxanthin. (Figure 1) Astaxanthin belongs to a class of carotenoids. It is a fat-soluble antioxidant. Studies show that the ability of accepting free electrons astaxanthin can be considered as the most powerful antioxidant. [12]

According to the total antioxidant capacity of astaxanthin stronger than vitamin C in 65 times, of vitamin E - 14 times, the beta-carotene - 54 times [26] and also astaxanthin stronger than other more well-known carotenoids.

By the ability to neutralize singlet oxygen astaxanthin is 550 times greater than alpha-tocopherol, the most active form of vitamin E [19], in 6000 times again - than vitamin C [27]. (Figure 2).

Figure 2. The comparative ability of antioxidants quench singlet oxygen

Astaxanthin has a unique molecular structure, through which he can "stretch" inside the cell membrane and protects it from oxidation both inside

and outside of the lipid bilayer. This makes astaxanthin quite unique antioxidant. (Figure 3)

                                                                 

Figure 3. The molecular structure of astaxanthin in the cell membrane. Astaxanthin protects cell membrane from oxidation both inside and outside of the lipid bilayer.

The use of astaxanthin by trained athletes significantly reduces the formation of free radicals and improves the enzymatic antioxidant defense of

tissues during and after intense exercise [14], [15] which allows significantly reduce muscle fatigue in athletes, shorten recovery after peak exercise, and increase effective workout [13] .

                                           

Figure 4. Anti-inflammatory effect of supplementation of astaxanthin. Level of inflammatory marker C-reactive protein in the plasma decreases.

Study confirmed significant protective effects of astaxanthin in inflammatory processes that occur in the muscles, tendons and joints during heavy physical workouts. [1], [2] (Figure 4)

Also shown a direct impact of the course consumption of astaxanthin on indicators of strength and endurance. [10] Thus, in a standardized test-load (squatting exercises) was significantly shows that after six months of consumption of astaxanthin in a dosage of 4 mg/day, the strength and endurance of young people aged 16 to 19 years increased by 62%. In the placebo group no such changes have occurred. (Figure 5) 

                                          

Figure 5. Number of sit-ups in the placebo group and astaxanthin.

Perhaps the protective effect on the muscle fibers of astaxanthin due to its effect on the formation and accumulation of metabolites of lactic acid in the tissues. It has been shown that consumption of astaxanthin in a daily dosage of 6 mg for four weeks significantly lowers the content of lactic acid after exercise - sprint race 1200 meters - compared with the placebo group. [28] (Figure6)

                                                       

Figure 6. Level of lactic acid after running for a distance of 1200 m before and after 4 weeks of consumption of astaxanthin.

Not less important for athletes is the ability of astaxanthin to move metabolism during exercise in the direction of fat utilization. [3] Improving fat metabolism during exercise contributes, in turn, reduce the level of lactic acid in the tissues.

In the model experiment was shown improvement of fat metabolism promotes natural burning them during training, and increase stamina and effective workout athletes. (Figure 7)

                                                     

Figure 7. The effect of taking astaxanthin in comparison with placebo.

Moreover, astaxanthin significantly increases endurance, compared to placebo, and in comparison with other antioxidants after four weeks of treatment [17] (Figure 8)

Figure 8. Any impact of astaxanthin and other antioxidants on the voyage. Dependence of the effect on the duration of the reception.

Natural Astaxanthin has also shown cardio-protective and cardio-tropic properties. The study found that astaxanthin accumulates in the tissues of the heart. The scientists concluded that astaxanthin is also able to eliminate the harmful effects of physical activity for the heart muscle in the same way as it does in the case of skeletal muscle. [4] (Figure 9)

Figure 9. Slices of heart and leg muscle. Exercise-induced muscle and cell membranes damage are shown in black. The use of astaxanthin reduces that damage.

     In the carried out today studies used different daily dosage of astaxanthin, as well as dose-dependent effect was seen from taking it. [1], [2], [10], [13], [14], [15], [28]

      Based on these data, and given the proven safety of astaxanthin and the absence of undesirable side effects, in the case of intense physical and emotional stress, typical for athletes, effective dose of astaxanthin can be considered 100 mg / kg body weight. (Table 1)

Body weight (kg)

Daily dosage of astaxanthin, mg (capsules)

 

less of 60 kg

6 mg (1-2 capsules)

60-80 kg

8 mg (1-2 capsules)

80-100 kg

10 mg (1-2 capsules)

100-120 and more

12 mg (1-2 capsules)

Table 1. Option calculate daily intake of astaxanthin on body weight during intense physical and / or emotional stress.

          Also a factor significantly reduces the results of athletes is undoubtedly the fatigue and depression due to long international flights (jet-leg syndrome). [16], [24] Moreover, these phenomena can be observed in trained athletes up to six days. [21]

One of the recommended ways to treat this condition is to supplement the diet of athletes by antioxidants [7], and the use of products that will improve mood and adaptive capabilities of the organism. [21], [23]

Natural astaxanthin has a unique ability to pass unchanged blood-brain barrier. [6] For astaxanthin also was shown antioxidant activity in tissues of the central nervous system as well as an antidepressant and anxiolytic-like effect. [5], [18]

         This allows to recommend the inclusion of astaxanthin in the diet of athletes to reduce the effects AAA_6401of fatigue and depression associated with long flights and jet lag, as well as to improve the emotional state of athletes before and during the competition.

               As a source of natural astaxanthin we offer exclusive capsules BIOASTIN ® Natural Astaxanthin ® (Figure 10) produced by Cyanotech Corporation (USA) - the world leader in the technology of cultivation and production of microalgae.

          This product contains   astaxanthin made frommicroalgae Haematococcus Pluvialis. (Figure 11) It should be noted that exact this astaxanthin from microalgae Haematococcus Pluvialis shows high bioavailability and antioxidant properties. [8]

 

 

 

Figure 10. BIOASTIN ® Natural Astaxanthin ®

                                       

Figure 11. Microalgae Haematococcus Pluvialis -natural source of astaxanthin, powerful antioxidant.

Microalgae Haematococcus Pluvialis, the raw materials for astaxanthin production is grown in one of the world's ecologically cleanest region - on the Pacific coast of Hawaii. (Figure 12) Capsules BIOASTIN ® Natural     Astaxanthin ® do not contain GMOs, pesticides and herbicides, as well as forbidden substances or components.

Figure 12. Plantation of Cyanotech Corpotation Company (USA) for growing raw material for astaxanthin production by the Pacific Ocean to Hawaii.

      The process of growing microalgae Haematococcus Pluvialis, and the extraction process is on a unique patented technology that ensures all of the antioxidant power of astaxanthin by the standards ISO 900112000 and GMP.

     It should be noted that to date, the exclusive distributor of Hawaiian astaxanthin in the territory of Ukraine and EurAsEC is an SPC "Istochnik dolgoletiya".

     The company is constantly expanding its range of products designed and manufactured on the basis of astaxanthin. (Figure 13). The company at products for many years have a well-deserved popularity and recognition among consumers.

SPC "Istochnik dolgoletiya" first proposed a comprehensive approach to the use of natural astaxanthin capacity to protect the body during physical activities inside and outside.

                                        

Figure 13. Production company "Istochnik dolgoletiya" for years have well-deserved love of consumers.

     BIOASTIN ® Natural Astaxanthin ® is available in packs of 30 and 60 capsules. Each capsule contains 4-5 mg of astaxanthin.

   Balm SUSTASTIN ® Has anti-inflammatory effect. Due to its well balanced composition reduces tension, fatigue and swelling, improves lymph and blood circulation, provides nutritional support for connective tissues, reduces discomfort in the joints after exercise.

    It should be noted that due to the anti-inflammatory activity and shown on the clinical studies combined use of capsules BIOASTIN ® Natural  Astaxanthin ® and balm SUSTASTIN ® recommended for inclusion in the complex therapy of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

   Balm TERMASTIN ® Have a profound long-term warming of the muscles and creates lasting warming effect without irritating effect, improves blood circulation and microcirculation. Accelerates the recovery of muscles and ligaments after intense exercise, relieve stress and fatigue.

    Cream-balm ARTRITIN ® Activates metabolic and regenerative processes in the joint and cartilage tissue. Has anti-inflammatory and soothing properties. Recommended as an external means to improve microcirculation of blood.

    Cream STOPASTIN ® is carries out protection for the feet and nail plates. Has a prophylactic antifungal effect, reduces sweating of the feet, eliminates odor and itching. Softens the skin of the feet, relieves stress and fatigue.

    The clinical study confirmed that the cream STOPASTIN ® is effective in treating fungal infections of the skin and nail plates.

    Included in the line ASTIN ® and BIOASTIN ® creams and balms that contain Hawaiian astaxanthin, produced at the company "Istochnik dolgoletiya" own production in the Moscow area, equipped with the most modern equipment, using advanced technology and maintaining high standards of quality.

 

Peferences:

1. Astaxanthin Clinical Trial for Delayed Onset Muscular Sorencess. Human Performance Laboratories. The University of Memphis. Report 1Fry A., August 16, 2001

2. Astaxanthin decreased oxidative stress and inflammation and enhanced immune response in humans. Park JS, Chyun JH, Kim YK, Line LL, Chew BP. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2010 Mar 5

3. Astaxanthin improves muscle lipid metabolism in exercise via inhibitory effect of oxidative CPT I modification. Aoi W., Naito Y., Takanami Y., Ishii T., Kawai Y., Akagiri S., Kato Y., Osawa T., Yoshikawa T. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008 Feb 22;366(4)

4. Astaxanthin limits exercise-induced skeletal and cardiac muscle damage in mice. Aoi W., Naito Y., Sakuma K., Ruchide M., Tokuda H, Maoka T, Toyokuni S., Oka S., Yasuhara M., Yoshikawa, Antioxidants & Redox Signaling. T., (2003). 5(1):139-144

5. Astaxanthin limits fish oil-related oxidative insult in the anterior forebrain of Wistar rats: putative anxiolytic effects? Mattei R., Polotow T.G., Vardaris CV, Guerra BA, Leite JR, Otton R.,  Barros MP. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2011 Sep;99(3)

6. Astaxanthin protects neuronal cells against oxidative damage and is a potent candidate for brain food. Liu X, Osawa T. Forum Nutr. 2009;61

7. Beating jet lag. Milne CJ, Fuard MH. Br J Sports Med. 2007 Jun;41(6)

8. Bioavailability of astaxanthin in Haematococcus algal extract. Okada Y, Ishikura M, Maoka T. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2009 Sep;73(9)

9. Cytokines and oxidative stress            status            following     a          handball       game in elite male players. Marin DP, dos Santos Rde C, Bolin AP, Guerra BA, Hatanaka E, Otton R. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2011;

10. Dietary Suplementation with Astaxanthin-rich Algal Meal Improves Muscle Endurance — A Double Blind Study on Male Students. Malmsten, C. (1998). Karolinska Institute, Gustavsberg, Sweden.

11. Does vitamin C and E Supplementation impair the favorable adaptation of regular exercise? Nikolaidis MG, Kerksick CM, Lamprecht M, McAnulty SR. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2012

12. Donator acceptor map for carotenoids, melatonin and vitamins. Martínez A, Rodríguez-Gironés MA, Barbosa A, Costas M. J Phys Chem A. 2008 Sep 25;112 (38)

13. Effect of astaxanthin on cycling time trial performance. Earnest CP, Lupo M, White KM, Church TS. Int  J Sports Med. 2011 Nov;32

14. Effect of astaxanthin supplementation on muscle damage and oxidative stress markers in elite young soccer players. Djordjevic B, Baralic I, Kotur-Stevuljevic J, Stefanovic A, Ivanisevic J, Radivojevic N, Andjelkovic M, Dikic N. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2012 Aug;52(4)

15. Effect of Astaxanthin Supplementation on Paraoxonase 1 Activities and Oxidative Stress Status in Young Soccer Players. Baralic I, Djordjevic B, Dikic N, Kotur-Stevuljevic J, Spasic S, Jelic-Ivanovic Z, Radivojevic N, Andjelkovic M, Pejic S. Phytother Res. 2012 Nov 28

16. Effect of long haul travel on maximal sprint performance and diurnal variations in elite skeleton athletes. Bullock N, Martin DT, Ross A, Rosemond D, Marino FE. Br J Sports Med. 2007 Sep;41(9)

17. Effects of astaxanthin supplementation on exercise-induced fatigue in mice. Ikeuchi M, Koyama T, Nakahashi J, Yazawa K. Biol Pharm Bull. 2006 Oct;29(10)

18. Enhanced cognitive function and antidepressant-like effects after krill oil supplementation in rats. Wibrand K, Berge K, Messaoudi M, Duffaud A, Panja D, Bramham CR, Burri L, Lipids Health Dis. 2013 Jan 25;I2(1)

19. Fisheries Science Shimidzu, Gogo, Miki, 1995. 62(1), 134-137.

20. High intensity exercise affects diurnal variation of some biological markers in trained subjects. Hammouda 0, Chtourou H, Chahed H, Ferchichi S, Chaouachi A, Kallel C, Miled A, Chamari K, Souissi N. Int J Sports Med. 2012 Nov;33(11)

21. Identifying some determinants of "jet lag" and its symptoms: a study of athletes and other travellers. Waterhouse J, Edwards B, Nevill A, Carvalho S, Atkinson G, Buckley P, Reilly T, Godfrey R, Ramsay R. Br J Sports Med. 2002 Feb 36(1)

22. International travel and the elite athlete. Pipe AL. Clin J Sport Med. 2011 Jan;21(1)

23. Jet lag and travel fatigue: a comprehensive management plan for sport medicine physicians and high-performance support teams. Samuels CH. Clin J Sport Med. 2012 May;22(3)

24. Jet lag in athletes. Lee A, Galvez JC. Sports Health. 2012 May;4(3)

25. Oxidative Stress and COPD: The Impact of Oral Antioxidants on Skeletal Muscle Fatigue. Rossman MJ, Groot HJ, Reese V, Zhao J, Amann M, Richardson RS. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2013 Jan 4.

26. Pharmacy Sciences Debasis Bagchi, Ph.D., Creighton University School of Health Sciences, June 2001.

27. Results presented at the 21st annual Meeting on Carotenoid Research held at Osaka, Japan on September 6&7, 2007 Nishida Y, Yamashita E and Miki W.

28. Sports Performance Benefits from Taking Natural Astaxanthin Characterized by Visual Acuity and Muscle Fatigue Improvements in Humans. Sawaki K., Yoshigi, H., Aoki K., Koikawa N., Azumane A., Kaneko, K., Yamaguci M. Journal of Clinical Therapeutics & Medicines. (2002).18:73-88

29. The role of antioxidant vitamins and enzymes in the prevention of exercise-induced muscle damage. Dekkers JC, van Doornen LJ, Kemper HC. Sports Med. 1996 Mar;21(3)

30. Time-course of changes in oxidative stress and antioxidant status responses following a soccer game. Fatouros IG, Chatzinikolaou A, Douroudos II, Nikolaidis MG , Kyparos A, Margonis K, Michailidis Y, J Strength Cond Res. 2010 Dec;24(12)